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  • Writer's pictureNoreen Nasir

As blacks fled Jim Crow, tensions rose in north

Updated: Dec 6, 2021


The 'Red Summer' of 1919 saw white-on-black violence in cities across the U.S. Historian Timuel D. Black describes the injustice and violence of the Jim Crow South that many black Americans were trying to escape at the time. (July 23, 2019)

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